Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series—1193
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library
Department of Historical Research
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
|College Map of 1790||frontispiece|
|Frenchman's Map of 1782||2|
|Dr. Philip Barraud and his family||6|
|Anna) Munford Byrd||10|
|Richard Coke, Jr.||14|
|George W. Southall||16|
|Owners since the Civil War||16|
|1. Mutual Assurance Society plats #108 (1796), #711 (1806), #5015 (1823), #7579 (1830), #10997 (1839), #14375 (1846), #17650 (1853), #21344 (1860)||20|
|2. Land Tax Records, 1780-1850||28|
|3. Personal Property Tax Records, 1783-1800||29|
|4. Susannah Riddell's and Philip Barraud's accounts with Humphrey Harwood||31|
|5. Loyalist Claim on behalf of Susannah Riddell||38|
|6. Pronunciation of "Barraud"||42|
|7. Barraud's account with James Anderson||43|
|8. Philip Barraud's will||45|
|9. Richard Coke, Jr.'s account with Richard Booker||46|
|10. James S. Darling's report on the music collection of Ann Blaws Barraud||(unnumbered)|
Location. Colonial Lot 19 South lies in the City of Williamsburg and is bounded as follows: Francis Street to the south, Botetourt Street to the east, the eastern part of Lot 18 to the west, and the northern part of Lot 19 to the north. (See the frontispiece, the College Map of 1790, on which the location of this property is marked in red.)
General Description. The Barraud House is an original building dating from the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Since 1782 when the house reached its present configuration, few changes have been made to it. The Barraud House retains much of its original woodwork and is one of the best preserved houses in Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg restored the main house in the 1940s when the Foundation initially acquired the property. In 1987-88 a thorough restoration was completed using more sophisticated modern methods such as paint analysis and dendrochronology. At the same time the interior of the Kitchen-Forge was finished, although a service building had stood on the site years before. The Kitchen-Forge is a reconstruction and contains no eighteenth-century architectural materials.
Ownership history in brief. The earliest record specifically describing Lot 19 is dated 16 March 1761. In it William Withers, a iii Williamsburg merchant, conveyed part of the two town lots he had bought from Dudley Digges to William Carter, a local apothecary. On the Frenchman's Map of 1782 two buildings are indicated on the southern part of what seems to be Lot 19. In 1782 Dr. Philip Barraud of Norfolk moved to Williamsburg where he established a medical practice and bought a house and lot. A sketch that accompanied an insurance policy of 1796 shows that Barraud owned two buildings (most likely the residence and separate kitchen) on Francis Street between the "Cross Street" and James Anderson's Lot. Here he lived until 1799, when he took a position in Norfolk and moved his family there.
In 1801 Dr. Barraud sold this property to Mrs. Anna Byrd. By 1823 Richard Coke, Jr. had come into possession of Lot 19 South. In 1843 Coke sold the property to Anna Field of Gloucester County, Virginia. When her estate was settled, the property passed to George W. Southall, who was taxed for it in 1850. In 1854 the tax records indicate that Helen M. Southall held the land formerly charged to George W. Southall. Southall evidently kept the property until 1872 when she conveyed it to Elizabeth B. Bright by deed of trust. Bright bequeathed it to her daughters Sarah Elizabeth Edloe and Jean Sinclair Bright. In 1888 John L. Mercer, who married Jean S. Bright, conveyed the property to Robert A. Bright as trustee. In 1924 the heirs of Jean Sinclair Bright Mercer sold it to Mary Boyd Ryland, who conveyed the property to Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated on 25 July 1940, reserving for herself and her husband a life tenure to the residence. They occupied the house until Mrs. Ryland's death in 1983 when Colonial Williamsburg took it over.
For more than twenty years the Dr. Barraud House was used as a rental property for Colonial Williamsburg employees
They occupied the house until Mrs. Ryland's death in 1983 when Colonial Williamsburg took it over. For several years Dr. Barraud's House was used as a rental property for Colonial Williamsburg employees
In 1987 a major restoration was begun on the premises. With funding from Mr. and Mrs. William Kimball the Barraud House and Kitchen-Forge have been corrected architecturally and newly refurbished as VIP accommodations for the Raleigh Tavern Society, Colonial Williamsburg's group of major donors. In preparing for the restoration, a great deal of new information about the Barrauds and their use of the house was collected. This report attempts to draw together in one place much of that additional data but relies most heavily on the house history written by Mary A. Stephenson in March 1947. Architectural and archaeological histories have also been revised and are separate reports.
The rest of this house history gives more details of ownership, as well as biographical information about some of the early occupants.
The history of this lot before 1761 is vague and altogether uncertain. It is impossible to obtain a complete chain of title for it because the early court records for both James County and the City of Williamsburg were destroyed during the American Civil War. A deed of 1761 indicates that Dudley Diggs of Yorktown had owned the lot previously and conveyed it to William Withers, a local merchant, before 1761.1 (The deed is quoted below.)
The first document describing Lot 19 specifically appeared in the York County records in 1761. In it William Withers, merchant of Williamsburg, conveyed two lots to William Carter, Williamsburg apothecary, for £375. The property is described as
All that piece or parcel of ground Situate lying and being on the South Side of the Duke of Gloucester Street in the said city and bounded as followeth[:] on the North by Duke of Gloucester Street[,] and on the East by a cross Street running from Duke of Gloucester Street to Francis Street[,] on the South by Francis Street[,] and on the West by the Ground Sold by the said William Withers to William Holt, Merchant[,] and is the remaining part of those two Lotts or half acres of Ground purchased by the said William Withers of Dudley Digges of the Town of York Gent … . And all houses Buildings Yards Gardens…. 2This deed describes all of Lot 19 but does not specifically state the lot number.
Sometime before June 1767 William Carter mortgaged various property, including the southern part of this lot, because of a debt to 2 3 James Anderson.3 There is no reason to believe that he defaulted on this mortgage. The next known owner is William Holt. Apparently, Holt acquired the property from Carter (or from some intervening owner), for in 1770 he and his wife Mary sold all of Lot 18 as well as a small part of Lot 19 to James Anderson, blacksmith, for £600. The property is described as:
All that lot or half acre of Ground situate lying and being on the Main Street in the said City on the South side thereof now in the Occupation of the said William Holt denoted in the plan of the City by Figures 18 and also part of the Lott next adjoining the East side thereof to wit Two Foot and a Half in Breadth extending Eastwardly into the said adjoining Lott on the said Street and from the Street a strait Line to be run thru the said Lott to the End thereof on the back street parrallel to the East side of the said Lot first abovementioned . . . .4
On the Frenchman's Map of 1782 two structures are indicated on the southern part of Lot 19. Most Likely, these two buildings were a dwelling house and kitchen. (See page 2 for the Frenchman's Map on which the southern portion of Lot 19 is enlarged.) Which owner built the present dwelling house is impossible to say.
It is not known exactly when the lot passed from Anderson's hands. By working backward in the records, this researcher has come to believe that Anderson—or his heirs—sold this lot to Susannah Riddell. The 1786 Williamsburg land tax list includes an entry for Philip Barraud in which he was taxed on half a lot acquired from Susannah Riddell, deceased.
Susannah Riddell (sometimes also written Riddle) was the widow of Dr. George Riddell of Yorktown. She moved to Williamsburg when her house in Yorktown was destroyed by General Cornwallis during the siege in October 1781. Documents from the Public Records Office, London include the claim of her nephew and legatee, Charles Phillips, for the Yorktown property damaged during the war.5 (Transcriptions of part of these very interesting documents appear in Appendix 5 of this report.)
In the census of the City of Williamsburg of 1782, Mrs. Riddle is listed as the head of a family composed of four whites and one black.6 From 1782 through 1785 she was taxed for a Williamsburg lot.7 Personal property tax records show that in both 1783 (the first year for which any personal property tax lists survive) and 1784 she owned 15 slaves, 8 of whom were under 16 years old, a horse, and a four-wheeled carriage.8 Personal property tax records have been excerpted and transcribed as Appendix 3 of this report.
Riddell's property was repaired and maintained by Williamsburg builder Humphrey Harwood. Her account with him began 22 February 1783 and indicates a six-room house with two passages, kitchen, laundry (or possibly 5 a combination kitchen-laundry), smokehouse, and stable.9 Transcriptions from the Harwood account books are included here as Appendix 4.
Susannah Riddell died in late 1785. Her obituary reads:
Lately died in the city of Williamsburg, Mrs. SUSANNAH RIDDELL A lady of humane heart, was a true friend, a kind mistress, and in short a most amiable disposition, and is much lamented by all who knew her. 10Two weeks later her executors advertised the sale of her house in Williamsburg, as well as her slaves and other property.
TO BE SOLD,The purchaser of Riddell's house in Williamsburg was evidently Dr. Philip Barraud, as indicated by the 1786 tax records. (See Appendix 2.)
At the house where Mrs. Susanna Riddle, deceased, lived in the city of Williamsburg on the 19th day of January next a variety of household and kitchen furniture: Twelve months credit will be allowed for all sums above five pounds, bond and good security being given, the bonds to carry interest from the date, if not punctually paid when they become due. The houses which are very convenient and in excellent repair, and a number of valuable negroes are for immediate sale, and will be disposed of privately, if satisfactory terms can be procured. For the houses and negroes, a credit of eighteenth months will be given.
J. AMBLER, }
ROBERT ANDREWS, }11
While the land tax records do not list Barraud until 1786, he was certainly in Williamsburg in 1783 because his name appears on the personal property tax list for that year. (See Appendix 3.)
Philip Barraud came from a French Huguenot family that had come to Norfolk, Virginia, via England. Philip's father Daniel was a successful merchant in the partnership Balfour & Barraud of Norfolk. his mother was Catherine Curle of Elizabeth City County. Although the surname is French, it was apparently anglicized as BA-rawd. (See Appendix 6.)
Conflicting reports have circulated about Philip Barraud's education. Apparently without basis is Wyndham Blanton's assertion that he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh.12 More reliable information comes from Barraud himself. A letter he wrote in 1801 implies informal medical training during the American Revolution rather than formal education; in the letter he recalled serving "faithfully … three years in the Hospitals under [James] McClurg in the War."13
After the Revolution, Barraud apparently moved directly to Williamsburg and began his medical practice. By January 1783 he was working 7 with local apothecary James Galt.14 Their partnership was a long one. The Richmond newspaper for 24 April 1788 gave notice that they would not be practicing together after the end of that month,15 but that seems not to have been the end of their association. In early 1795 Galt and Barraud jointly became visiting physicians at the Public Hospital after the death of Dr. John de Sequeyra. They filled this office until 1799.16
Barraud married Anne Blaws Barraud on 11 July 1783. She was the daughter of Norfolk physician Lewis Hansford and the sister of another doctor, Cary Haslet Hansford.17 A devoted wife, affectionate mother, and capable housekeeper, Anne was also an accomplished musician. Her impressive collection of piano music fortunately survives. (See Appendix 10 for James S. Darling's report on her and her music.)
Exactly when the Barrauds took up residence in the house that now bears their name is not certain. Perhaps Barraud's account with Williamsburg carpenter and builder Humphrey Harwood indicates the date of their move. The account began in November 1783 and continued through October 1792. Harwood's ledgers show charges for work such as whitewashing, laying hearths, rebuilding cellar steps, and plastering. (The accounts are 8 transcribed as Appendix 3 of this report.)
Mutual Assurance Society documentation proves that Dr. Philip Barraud was living on the Lot 19 South property in April 1796. He insured his "two Buildings on Francis Street at Williamsburg … situated between the Cross Street and that of James Anderson in the county of James City … The Dwelling marked A [valued] at 1000 Dollars … The Kitchen marked B at 160 Dollars." In the policy Barraud stated that the buildings were "now occupied by myself." A rough sketch accompanied the policy and is duplicated in Appendix 1 of this report.
Philip Barraud was close friends with St. George Tucker, one of Williamsburg's most prominent residents. Their extensive correspondence ranged from 1791 until 1827, and it gives a good deal of information about the deceptively sleepy little town of Williamsburg after the capital had moved to Richmond. For example, on 12 October 1796 he wrote Tucker
The World has run mad with us for Bargaining & swapping—You'll find the old Squire perfectly at Home in Hornsby's House—Dick Randolph in the Squire's late Home—Littleton Tazewell master of Squire's Farm & for ought I know 'ere long, of our Friend Dumbarton's too—She [probably Mrs. Anna Byrd, wife of Otway Byrd] talks of breaking up the concern at Chelsa & selling the Land, by Otway's advice.18
Accounts of a second local craftsman indicate Barraud was still living in Williamsburg through 1798. Blacksmith-farrier James Anderson mended household items and tools and shod horses for the Barrauds.19 (See 9 Appendix 7 for a transcript of this account.)
But by the middle of 1798 Barraud was contemplating a move back to his hometown; he wrote Judge Tucker from Norfolk, "several things are aiding me in removing my home to this place."20 On 11 December 1798 Dr. Barraud wrote again from Norfolk concerning his home in Williamsburg:
Do make Robin take the measure of our Sitting-Room-Hearth & send it me by the next Post—I want to get a Fender to protect us from Danger of burning the House & ravishing the lovely carpet. Say whether the measure includes the blocks of the woodwork or is taken within them
In 1799 Dr. Barraud accepted the position of superintendent of the Marine Hospital in Norfolk. On 22 January 1800, not long after his move from Williamsburg, Barraud wrote Tucker:
My Dear Friend,Apparently, the Barrauds were staying with relatives or friends in Norfolk until such time as they could establish their own residence.
I am already inlisted in a decent, daily occupation; with a respectable portion of private practice, for my standing; and with my public duties at this place — Yet I feel not as if I were at Home & frequently take a squint towards one dear, old Habitation at the prominent point of my wishes. This will not seem odd either from the affections wch. will ever live in my Heart, for the Scenes & the persons we have quitted; or from the state of Visitation, which we yet are in; & to which we must submit & endeavor to enjoy for two months to come. We shall not get into our House in a shorter Time.21
In 1799 Dr. Barraud owned other Williamsburg land in addition to the Lot 19 property dealt with so far in this report. In an indenture dated 1799 James and Eva Wright conveyed a lot to Barraud. The property 10 is described as being "on north side of the South street … bounded on the west by lot of Mr. Charles Lewis, on the South by said Street, on the East by Lots of Mr. James Anderson Decd., on the North by lot of Miss Polly Stith." This was evidently a deed of trust or lien, as the final papers were not executed for some years, in fact not until 24 November 1812.22 From the location description this property seems to be the southern part of Lot 17, although the number is not specified. (For the location of Lot 17, see the frontispiece, the College Map of 1790.)
The next owner of Lot 19 South was Anna Munford Byrd, widow of Otway Byrd.23 The deed conveying the property to her does not survive, but from a court case one may infer that that is exactly what occurred. In "Anna Byrd vs. Mutual Assurance Society" there is the statement that Philip Barraud conveyed his Williamsburg property to her by deed in April 1801. (As stated earlier, in 1796 Barraud had insured two buildings on his Williamsburg property [policy #108].) In this case the Mutual Assurance Society sought judgment against Byrd for the payment of a premium due on 1 June 1805. The Circuit Court of James City County adjourned the case.2411
Williamsburg Land Tax Records for this period offer little additional information about the ownership of Lot 19. In 1797 Barraud was charged for half a lot valued at £12. In 1801 he paid tax on two lots valued at $50. (This difference in the number of lots does not necessarily mean that Barraud acquired an additional lot and a half. The earlier record may refer to half of one of the half-acre lots into which Williamsburg was originally divided; later records are less strict about the size of town lots.) The 1806 tax records show that Anna Byrd was the owner of two lots valued at $50. (See Appendix 2 for relevant excerpts from the Williamsburg Land Tax Records, 1791-1850.)
Another of Barraud's letters to St. George Tucker gives information about Mrs. Byrd's move to Williamsburg. In part, it reads:
Norfolk Feb 13, 1801.
My Dear Tucker,
… On the subject of Otway's affairs I have much to congratulate you with—An unremitting attention to settlements of this Business by able Agents, has brought to bear a far different prospect of Things than had been anticipated. There appears a decided Balance of 6000 dollars in her favor — if not more. This conclusion tallies with Every Thing I had been told by our lamented Friend & delights the very bottom of my Soul. Mr. Munford is now closing the great outlines of this important affair & will be with us some days longer. His presence has contributed materially to the adjustment. This favorable Result of Mrs. Byrd's Finances has changed her whole plans of future Life. Instead of going into her Brother's Family, which I never gave into, it is determined she shall become a member of your Town where she will not only bring her young Family forward more to her wishes but where on her Income she can live among persons of all others she most loves & wishes to be near.25
Apparently, she moved in early 1806, but by then her financial situation was not as rosy as it had seemed earlier. To eke out an existence 12 she planned on taking in boarders, preferably girls attending one of the schools in Williamsburg. Her relative William Munford wrote from Richmond to St. George Tucker:
Dec. 22, 1805
… I will take the liberty to trouble you again with a request on behalf of my Sister Byrd—… you will oblige her and myself if you will receive it [a shipment of coal] and have it taken care of, until her arrival, which I expect will be in a short time. She has determined to remove to your old City to live, and to take in boarders for her support. Your kindness, in giving information of her intention to such persons as you may know are disposed to send their daughters to Town, for the purpose of Attending Mr. Anderson's school, might also be of great service to her…26
In June 1806 Anna Byrd insured her Williamsburg property. Policy #711 was a revaluation of Barraud's policy #108. The two buildings insured were described by her as "on the North side of Francis Street … now occupied by myself and situated between the Lott of James Anderson West and that of Frances Powell East in the county of James City… The Dwelling House marked A [valued] at $1500 and The Kitchen marked B at $160." Front and back porticoes of wood were attached to the wooden dwelling house, a one-story structure measuring 47 by 33 feet. (See Appendix 1 for copies of Mutual Assurance Society plats for this property.)
From 1810 to 1820 Anna Byrd's property was listed in the tax records as valued at $80. In 1820 "Ann Byrd of Lynchburg" was taxed for two Williamsburg lots, one valued at $1075, the other at $100. (Land tax records are excerpted in Appendix 2 of this report.)
Her venture at taking in boarders did not succeed. By 1815 Mrs. Byrd had moved from Williamsburg. In December of that year William Waller 13 wrote St. George Tucker several time asking about renting Byrd's Williamsburg property. He opened negotiations by declaring the house and dependencies in deplorable condition:
I have been informed that Mrs. Byrd has written to you & requested that you would either sell or rent for her, her house and Lott in the City of Williamsburg, at the same time stating that she had offered to rent to me for $100— pr. Annum… I wrote her … that as the dwelling house and Out houses, as likewise the enclosures were very much out of order; I would give her $100 pr. An: for rent, upon condition, that she would permit me to have the necessary repairs made, and deduct the amount of them out of the rent… . the dwelling house … would be uninhabitable until some repairs were put upon it … . I will thank you to inform me, whether Mrs. Byrd has given you any authority to agree to what I have proposed to her—In one of these letters Waller mentioned a Doctor Smith as occupant of the house and implied that others had preceded him. No additional information about these tenants is available.27
When St. George Tucker wrote Mrs. Byrd in Lynchburg on 5 January 1817, his letter implied that she hoped to dispose of the property.
My dear Aunt Nancy—
… It will not be in my power to do any thing for you either towards renting or selling your house under my present situation — You had better write to some person, (suppose Roscoe Cole or Rob. Anderson) to act for you … .28
A few days later Robert Anderson, Jr. wrote her, "It may be well to apprise you that, except the west side, there is not a post, rail, or pole on the lot used as a garden; and that the buildings and the enclosures about them, are very defective and much less valuable than when you left 14 them … . "29
The exact date Richard Coke became the owner of this property is not known. On 9 April 1823 the Mutual Assurance Society issued a policy to "Richard Coke Jr. residing at Williamsburg in James City." The policy number was given as "no[.] 5015 a revaluation per declaration No. 1514 by Anna Byrd." The buildings were described as "on Francis Street in said city between the lot of Nancy Camp on the West[,] Thomas Sands on the North [,] and streets otherwise." Buildings were valued at $1500 for the dwelling house and $200 for the kitchen. In 1826 Richard Coke paid real estate taxes to the City of Williamsburg. His two lots "via Anna Byrd" were valued at $1075 and $100 respectively. Coke's two lots consistently appear on the Williamsburg tax records for 1830, 1835, 1838, and 1840.
In August and September 1826 Richard T. Booker, Williamsburg carpenter, did repair work for Coke. Booker put up "pails to frontyard," made and hung a "gait for front yard," made latches, installed "pains of glass," and other such work. These repairs and improvements were almost certainly done to Coke's newly-acquired Lots 18 and 19 South, especially since tax records show Coke owned only two lots at this time. Booker did more extensive work for Coke during 1828. He used 740 feet of plank, 300 shingles, 250 feet of sheeting and weather boarding, 40 feet of sleepers, 56 feet of sills, 14 posts, framing for a summer house, and 100 feet of 15 scantling.30 (These accounts are transcribed as Appendix 9 of this report.)
In 1843 the property was conveyed to Ann (or Anna) Field of Gloucester. Virtually no personal information about her has been discovered. Possibly she was the same Mrs. Field who let rooms to college students during the 1840-41 session.31 In 1843 the Williamsburg tax list charged her with two lots valued at $1075 and $100 "Via Rich Coke Jr." In 1847 the same tax assessment was made against her estate. Though the property tax was charged to her estate in 1847, steps were taken to settle the estate the previous year. On 21 September 1846 John W. C. Catlett, executor of the estate of Ann W. C. Field, received $417 from George W. Southall "being second payment for purchase of House & lot in Wmsburg."32 Southall completed payment for the property on 17 April 1847 by remitting to "John W. C. Catlett, Exor. of Ann C. Field decd. Three Hundred & Seventy nine 51/100 dollars, in full for purchase of House & Lot."33
As detailed above Southall purchased this property from Field's estate in 1846, finalizing the transaction the following year. The Williamsburg tax records for 1850 assess Southall with two lots valued at $1075 and $100. He held them from 1850 to 1854. In 1854 Helen W. Southall appears on the tax list charged with one lot valued at $1800 "formerly G. W. Southall's." (See Appendix 2 for real estate tax records.)
It is impossible to produce a clear chain of title for this property because the James City County records were destroyed during the Civil War. Tax records alone are not sufficient for the purpose; however, the Williamsburg Land Tax Book for 1865 indicates that Helen W. Southall of Williamsburg was charged a fee for her residence assessed at $1800.34
On 11 July 1872 a deed was recorded in Williamsburg stating that Helen W. Southall conveyed a certain property with general warranty to Elizabeth B. Bright for $1800. It seems clear from the description in the deed that the property conveyed is Lot 19 South.
All that lot of land in the City of Williamsburg, where the said Helen M. Southall now resides and which was allotted to her in partition of the real estate of George W. Southall, deceased, bounded on the South by Francis Street, East by Botetourt Street, North by the lots of Robert Anderson purchased by Richard Barron, and west by the lot of Robert Anderson purchased by said Barron, lying about two hundred and twenty-eight feet on Francis Street and one hundred and 17 two feet on Botetourt Street.35
By the will of Elizabeth B. Bright (dated 17 March 1872 and probated 11 August 1873) she left her property to her two daughters, Sarah Elizabeth Edloe and Jean Sinclair Bright.36 The latter married John L. Mercer and died intestate leaving three children, Jean Christine Mercer, Mary Waller Mercer Lightfoot, and Thomas Hugh Mercer. In April 1888 John L. Mercer conveyed with general warranty to his trustees, Robert A. Bright, the following property:
A certain house and lot in the City of Williamsburg, now occupied by the said John L. Mercer as a residence, and bounded as follows, to-wit: South by Francis Street, East by Botetourt Street, North by lot of J. Allston Cabell and west by a lot now owned by said John L. Mercer, formerly belonging to the Estate of Ro. Anderson, deceased … .37Mercer died intestate several years before his wife's death, leaving his three children heirs of the property joined with his wife's interest. The 1923 Williamsburg land tax list shows the property charged to R. E. Bright, Trustee, and designates it as the "residence of J. L. Mercer, East Francis Street, the lots being assessed at $1200.00[,] the buildings at $2600.00, making a total amount of $3800.00 … . "38 18
In May 1924, after some legal tangles were straightened out, it was found that the heirs of Jean Sinclair Mercer's heirs (namely, Jean C. Mercer, Thomas Hugh Mercer and his wife, and Mary Waller Lightfoot and her husband Herbert Lightfoot) had a clear title to the property. They were able to convey to Mary Boyd Ryland with covenants of warranty the Lot 19 South property and buildings.39 The western boundary line between the Ryland's and the Shewmake property was fixed and determined in 1930.40
By a deed dated 25 July 1940 Mary Boyd Ryland and Archie G. Ryland, her husband, conveyed the property to Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated (as the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation was known at that time).
All that certain piece or parcel of land, together with the buildings and improvements thereon, situated at the northwest corner of the inter section of Francis and Botetourt Streets, in the City of Williamsburg, Virginia, and more particularly bounded and described as follows: Beginning at the northwest point of intersection between Francis and Botetourt Streets; thence running a westerly direction along the north line of Francis Street a distance of 234.03 feet to a point; thence in a northerly direction 108.41 feet to the point; thence in an easterly direction 234.17 feet to a point on the western line of Botetourt Street; thence in a southerly direction along the western line of Botetourt Street 109.36 feet to the point of beginning … . The property hereby conveyed is bounded on the north by the property of Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated, on the east by Botetourt Street, on the south by Francis Street, and on the west by the property of Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated, formerly the property of Lela B. Shewmake … . Being the same property conveyed to Mary Boyd Ryland by deed from Jean C. Mercer and others dated May 12, 1924, recorded in Williamsburg Deed Book No. 10, page 270, subject, however, to the adjustment of the boundary line between the property hereby conveyed and the property 19 formerly owned by Lela B. Shewmake by a certain agreement dated June 24, 1930, between Mary Boyd Ryland and Archie G. Ryland and Lela B. Shewmake recorded in Williamsburg Deed Book No. 14, page 320, to which reference is here made.The sellers reserved and retained by this deed a life tenure to the residence and that portion of the property fronting on Francis Street, being a distance of 155.76 feet eastward from Botetourt Street and extending northward the entire depth of the lot for and during the natural life of the sellers and the survivors of them.41, Mrs. Ryland occupied the Barraud House until her death in 1983.
|Year(s)||Owner's Name||no. of lots||value of lot(s)|
|1782||[torn] Riddell||1||£2.10. -|
|1783-85||Susannah Riddle||1||2.10. -|
|yearly rent of lots|
|1786||Susanna Riddle Decd.|
to Philip Barraud
|½||£ 3.15. -|
|1787-88||Philip Barraud||½||£18. -. -|
|1789-97||Philip Barraud||½||£12. -. -|
|1802||Ann Byrd late Barraud||2||$50|
|1807, 1809-14||Ann Byrd||2||$83|
|(1808 tax list is missing.)|
WILLIAMSBURG PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX LIST, 1783-1800
(CWFL microfilm M-1.47)
|Mrs. Susanna Riddell||Dr.|
|To bricks @ 4/. & laying Pathes to|
kitching & Garden & yard Gates &
laying Drane 45/.
|To Building Well hole in Smoke House 5/.||-. 5. -|
|April 15th.||To 600 Bricks @ 3/. & 8 Bushels of lime @ 1/||1. 6. -|
|To underpining Stable 17/6 & Laying|
Kitching harth 3/9
|1. 2. 3|
|To Repairing Celler wall, & Steps 7/6, &|
3 days labour @ 3/.
|May 3d.||To 1 bushel of mortar 1/3 & Repairing Plastering up Stares 3/||-. 4. 3|
|To whitewashing 2 Rooms, & a passage @ 5/6||-.15. 6|
|14th.||To 20 bushels of lime @ 1/. & 120 bricks @ 4/6||1. 3. 6|
|To 3-½ bushels of whitewash @ 2/. & 6 Days labr. @ 3/.||1. 5. -|
|To whitewashing 4 Rooms, & a Passage @ 5/6||1. 7. 6|
|To Do. 2 Rooms Papered on the Sides @ 2/6.||-. 5. -|
|To contracting Chimney & laying the Harth 12/.||-.12. -|
|To Repairing Plastering in Kitching & Landery 12/.||-.12. -|
|To 2 Days labour @ 3/, & hair 2/.||-. 8. -|
|To lathing & plastering in Closet 5/. & labour work 1/6. & 280 larths||4. 5. -|
|To ½ Bushel of whitewash 1/ (pr. Cromwell)||-. 1. -|
|May 23rd.||To Cash pd. Capt. Davis for Frate & Dutyes on Goods||3. 0. -|
|[subtotal] £18.18. 3|
|Novemr. 1.||To 22 bushels of lime @ 1/. & 300 larthes @ 1/6 & hair 9d.||1. 7. 3|
|To 108 bricks ¾. Layg. A harth 2/6 & turning Arch & Repairg. Chimney 3/6||-. 9. 4|
|To repairing larthing & plasterg. (in Shop) 32 & do. In Cellar 18/.||-.18. -|
|To 4 days labout @ 3/.||-.12. -|
|To 3 bushs. of lime 3/. & Repairing Steps 3/9||-. 6. 9|
|April 24th. A ballance Due this Day of 38/7|
|To 2 bushs. of whitewash 4/. & 2-½ bushs. of lime 2/6||-. 6. 6|
|To hair 6d. to plastering fire place & do. in House, Landary & Kitchen 6/.||-. 6. 6|
|To Whitewashing 6 Rooms @ 4/6, & 2 Passages @ 5/6||1.18. -|
|To do. [whitewashing] Landary 4/6. & labour work 3/.||-. 7. 6|
|Septr. 18||To 420 lb. of Oats in Straw @ 6/. pr. C.||1. 5. 2.|
|4. 3. 8|
|Mrs. Susanna Riddell||Dr.|
|To 1-½ bushels of lime 1/6 & pointing 2 Chimnies 5/||£-. 6. 6|
|By Cash Six Gunies [guineas?] @ 28/||8. 8. -|
|By Cash||12. 0. -|
|July 10||By Cash to Ballance||1.18. 7|
|By Cash in full||4. 3. 8|
|£4. 3. 8|
|By Cash of Robt. Andrews 6/[6?].||-. 6. 6|
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/14/88
|Doctr. Philip Barraud||Dr.|
|To 2-½ bushels of lime @ 1/. & 36 bricks 1/3 & 1 days labour 3/.||-. 6. 6|
|To seting up a Grate 7/6||-. 7. 6|
|To whitewashg. A Room & Spots about the House 5/.||-. 5. -|
|To whitewashing a Passage 3/.||-. 3. -|
|Novr. 28||To 8 bushs. of lime @ 1/. & 273 bricks @ 3/. & 2 days la[bo]r. @ 2/6||1. 1. 2|
|To laying 3 harths @ 2/6 & setting up a Grate 7/6||-.15. -|
|To 2 bushels of lime 2/ hair 6d. & mendg. plastering 2/6||-. 5. -|
|To Whitewashing 2 Rooms 6/. & passage 4/6 & do. 4 Closets @ 2/3||-.19. 6|
|To Whitewash /8d. & white-washing 1 Room 4/6||-. 5. 2|
|May 18||To 5 bushels of lime 5/. & repairing plastering /9d.||-. 5. 9|
|To White-washing 4 Rooms & 2 passages @ 4/6.||1. 7. -|
|To d[itt]o. porch & Closet 3/. & ¼ bushels of White wash 2/6.||-. 5. 6|
|To building pair of Steps & do. to Front 7/6||-. 7. 6|
|To 1-½ days labour 3/9 & 40 Bricks 1/3||-. 5. -|
|Novr. 16||To 2-½ bushels of lime 2/6 & 115 Bricks 3/6 & ½ days lab[o]r. 3/9||-. 9. 9|
|To setting up a Grate with rub'd Bricks 20/.||1. -. -|
|To Whitewashing 2 Rooms & 2 passages @ 4/6. & ¾ bushl. whtwash. 1/6||-.19. 6|
|£ 13.19. 4|
|[Per Contra page blank]|
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/15/88
|Doctrs. Galt & Barraud||Dr.|
|To 850 Bricks at 3/. & 12 bushels of lime 12/||1.17.6|
|To building Steps 17/6 & 2-¼ days labour @ 2/6||1. 3. -|
|Octor. 8||To 8 bushels of lime 8/. & 150 Bricks 4/6||-.12. 6|
|To building a Furnace & Setting a Grate 15/.||-.15. -|
|To mending plastering 9/. & 7 bushels of lime 7/.||-.16. -|
|To pointing Chimney 1/. & white-washing 2 Rooms @ 4/6||-.10. -|
|To 3 pecks of Whitewash 1/6 & 2 days labour @ 2/6||-. 6. 6|
|£ 6. 8. 6|
|E[rrors]. Excepted pro.|
|W. H. Excr.|
|[Per Contra page blank]|
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/15/88
|Doctr. Philip Barraud||Dr.|
|August 15th.||Dr.[debit] Brought from folio 58||£ 9. 9. 1|
|To 19 bushels of lime 19/. & 1100 bricks @ 3/. Pr. C.[per hundred]||2.12. -|
|To building a pair of Steps 24/. & 3 days labour @ 2/6||1.11. 6|
|To repairing Chimney & whitewashing 2/6||-. 2. 6|
|Octor. 12||To 1 bushel of lime 1/. & painting Cellar Cap & steps 2/.||-. 3. -|
|To labr. 1/3.||-. 1. 3|
|E[rrors]. Ex[cept]ed. by W. H. Exor.|
|March 3||To ½ bushls of lime 6d. pr. Thristam||-. -. 6|
|June 3||To 3/4 d[itt]o. of whitewash 1/1-½||-. 1. 1-½|
|To white-washing Passage 2/. 2 Rooms @ 3/9 In dwelling House||-. 9. 6|
|To do. 1 Room in Kitchen 4/||-. 4. -|
|£ 14.14. 5-½|
|(See Portea folo. 40 - Ledger C.)|
|August 15th||By 140 Bricks left 4/3||£ -. 4. 3|
|£ -. 4. 3|
|(See portea folo. 40 Ledg: C)|
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/15/88
|Doctr: Philp: Barraud||Dr.||Cr.|
|June 12th||To amt. of account brought from
fol: 128 Ledger B. prior to
Novr. 23rd. 1788 £13.19. 4|
To amt. of acct. subsequent thereto - .15. 1½
|By amt. of Cr. brt. over||£-. 4. 3|
|To lime & mending plaistering 2/||-. 2. -|
|To 1 bush. of whitewash 1/6||-. 1. 6|
|To whitewashing 2 Rooms & a passage @ 3/9||-.11. 3|
|To d[itto]. The Kitchen 4/.||-. 4. -|
|22||To laying a Brick Walk thro the Yards &c.||-. 8. -|
|July 29||To 6 bush. of lime @ 9d. & 160 bricks 4/||-. 8. 6|
|To taking up Cellar steps & Jambs & rebuildg. them &[c.] 8/6||-. 8. 6|
|Augt. 8||To 2 bushels of lime @ 9d.||-. 1. 6|
|To taking down the Head of the Chimney & rebuilding it — and mending the plaistering in the House 6/.||-. 6. -|
|Octor. 25||To laying a Kitchen Hearth 2/6||-. 2. 6|
|To d[itt]o. one in the House & rubbing bricks for it 3/6||-. 3. 6|
|To 4 bushels of lime @ 9d.||-. 3. -|
|Febry. 2||To pulling down a Grate 1/.||-. 1. -|
|10||To 1½ bush: lime @ 9d. & mending plaistering 1/.||-. 2. 1½|
|June 1||To 1½ bush: Whitewash 2/||-. 2. -|
|Whitewashing 3 Rooms & 2 passages @ 3/9||-.18. 9|
|To do. [whitewashing] 2 Ceilings @ 1/6||-. 3. -|
|Jany. 10||To mending the plaistering & two grates & lime||-. 5. -|
|May 7||To 3½ bush. of Whitewash @ 1/3||-. 4. 4½|
|To whitewashing 5 Rooms @ 3/9 & 2 Closets @ 1/6||1. 1. 9|
|To do. [whitewashing] 2 Ceilings @ 1/6||-. 3. -|
|Octor. 1||To 7 bush. of lime @ 9d. setting up a grate||-.12. 9|
|To laying a Hearth 2/6 & mending plaistering & Backs 2/.||-. 4. 6|
|Caried on to Folio 1st. [sic] Ledger D|
Transcribed and proofread by Lou Powers, 7/15/8837
|Philip Barraud Esqr.|
|April 20th||To Laying 2 Harths @ 2/6||-. 5. -|
|To 2-½ Bushs. Lime @ 9d.||-. 1.10|
|To 1 days Hire of Jerry @ 4/ pr day||-. 4. -|
|To 1 Bush. Lime @ 9d.||-. -. 9|
|May 20||To Whitewashing 2 Rooms @ 3/9 & 1 Passage @ 3/9||-. 11. 3|
|To ditto [whitewashing] 2 Cielings @ 1/6||-. 3. -|
|To 1 Bush. & 1 Peck of Whitewash @ 2/.||-. 2. 6|
|June 23||To 2 days Hire of Jerry @ 4/ pr. day & 1 Peck of Whitewash & 2 Bls. of Lime @ 9d.||-.10. -|
|Octor. 25||To Whitewashing Spots &c. about the House 3/. & Whitewash 6d.||-. 3. 6|
|Vide ante Wm. Harwoods & his Testators acct.|
Transcribed and proofread by Lou Powers 7/14/88
The Examination of Sir James Riddell Attorney to Charles Phillips acting Exor. & residuary Legatee of Susannah Riddell Exr. & Devizee of Dr. Geo: Riddell late of York Town Virginia
A large House with Stables Coach-house &c. which was by Order of Lord Cornwallis levelled to the Ground to prevent the Enemy taking Shelter at the Siege of York Town in 1781 — £2000.—
Examinant says that Dr. George Riddell deceased, his Brother, was a Resident of York Town in Virginia that he has every Reason to believe his Brother was uniformly attached to the British Government, and that he had been taken up as such by the Rebel Government & imprisoned, but on Account of his Age and Profession he was allowed to remain in York Town, until his Death in 1778 or 9, when he was preparing to come to Britain.
The Examinant can speak positively to his political Principles having received material Information from his respecting the Designs of the Rebels, which he the Examinant communicated to Lord North, then Minister of this Country.
Says Dr. Riddell was possessed of a Mansion House in York Town, which was pulled down by Order of Lord Cornwallis in 1781, to prevent its affording Shelter to the Rebels; in proof of which he refers the Board to the following Certificate
No. 1 "Mansfield Street May 20th. 1784 "I was under the necessity of ordering the House belonging to Mrs. Riddell, 39 Widow of Dr. George Riddell in York Town Virginia to be pulled down & the Offices & Gardens to be destroyed previous to the beige of that place in Oct. 1781. As Mrs. Riddell was a Gentlewoman of a most respectable Character, & was then living under the protection of His Majesty's Government, to which she had on all occasions shewn her loyalty, I think it my duty to declare that she is, in my opinion, entitled to some compensation for the destruction of her property, (sign'd) Cornwallis"
Examinant cannot speak as to the Value of the House &c. but has been informed it was worth about £2000 — Mr. James Parker at present in London is well acquainted with the Premises.
Says he believes that no Compensation for the Destruction of the Property now claimed has ever been received.
Mrs. Susannah Riddell died two Years ago, and her Nephew Charles Philips has succeeded to this Property as sole Residuary Legatee by Instrument produced — by which same Instrument the Examinant is empowerd to present and prosecute this Claim.
Mr. Charles Philips was never a Resident in North America during the War — and he believes is now in France with his Family.
Sworn before the Commrs: at their office
In Lincolns Inn Fields 9th. Febry. 1789
Wits: James Betts
Mr. James Parker Examined, Says he knew the late Dr. George Riddell at York Town and believes he was truly loyal in his principles during the Rebellion.
Dr. Riddell was possessed of a Brick House in York Town two story high believes 4 Rooms on a floor with several other buildings & very excellent Garden but cannot be very correct to the value of the Buildings and Improvements — understood that they had been considered as worth £1800 Sterling at the Time which he thinks full Price, and rather inclines to appraise the Value at £1600. — Believes it was built about 8 or 9 Years before the Troubles and has not a doubt of the Property being wholly in Dr. Riddell.
Sworn before the Commissioners
Of American Claims at their office
In Lincolns Inn Fields 4th Mar. 1789 40 Wits: James Betts —
To the Right Honble. The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury
Memorial of Sir James Riddell Baronet in behalf of Susannah Riddell late of York Town now of Williamsburg Virginia Widow Executrix and Devisee of George Riddell Doctor of Physic his Brother.
That her late Husband in the course of his Practice during a long residence in York Town having increased his Fortune considerably with great reputation had given up that profession sometime before the dispute between the Mother Country & America took place with a view to draw in his Effects to enable him to return to his Native Country, to pass the remainder of his days among his Relations
That soon after the Rebellion took place his Person was apprehended by order of the Congress as one suspected to wish better to his Mother Country than he did to the American cause, but was afterward released n [sic] account of the respect the Inhabitants of the Provinces bore to his Character, on condition that he did remain quiet during the troubles or should otherwise quit the Country
That he was Inhibited from following the latter by his Effects being in the hands of the Rebels and as such either not to be come at or at so great a disadvantage that he was necessitated to defer withdrawing himself from thence; that to the consequence of his disappointment and his feelings for his Mother Country his Death in January 1779 was in a great measure attributed whereby his Widow was not only deprived of a most affectionate Husband but with great difficulty could procure the Necessaries of Life.
That to add to her misfortune York Town was the place where Lord Cornwallis with his Army made a stand in September 1781, in consequence whereof the only remains of her late Husbands Estate, being a large House with Stables, Coachhouse &c. of which she was in possession at that per8iod was by his Lordships order levelled to the Ground to prevent the Enemy from taking Shelter in or near to it.
That the Memorialist begs leave to transcribe a paragraph from a Letter of Hers to him on that subject and to submit her case together with a Certificate of Lord Cornwallis relative thereto to your consideration
My Letters both to my Brother & Mr. Innes must have given at least an imperfect representation of the distresses I have suffer'd for four years past You would have pitied me my dear Brother had you seen the Change of Circumstances I was reduced to [,] left in a Country far distant from my Relations without Money or the power of obtaining what is due to me here[,] 41 a Country that has been the Seat of War in all its horrors which at length center'd in the very spot where I had spent so many years—My whole Habitation Razed to the Ground and I turn'd out to seek for shelter for myself & Family I trust my friends will consider my distressed situation &c.
Mansfield Street May 20th. 1784
I was under the necessity of ordering the House belonging to Mrs. Riddell, Widow of Doctor George Riddell in Yorktown Virginia to be pulled down and the Offices and Garden to be destroyed previous to the Siege of that place in October 1781. As Mrs. Riddell was a Gentlewoman of a most respectable Character and was then living under the protection of His Majest's Government, to which she had on all occasions shown her loyalty, I think it my Duty to declare that she is in my opinion entitled to some compensation for the destruction of her property
That as the Certificate above mentioned so granted arises from the feelings of humanity and Wishes with which the character of that Noble Earl is so replete Your Memorialist thinks it unnecessary to point out in any other light the distresses she now suffers on account of the unfortunate disputes with America but only to add that from the Widow Mrs. Riddells House Offices and Garden being levell'd the loss attending it with that of their Contents She became a real and immediate Sufferer of Two thousand pounds exclusive of the loss of many valuable Negro Servants who took the advantage of the confusion by their leaving her Also of the loss of many Debts owing to her late Husband which she never expects to recover.
Your Lordships Memorialist in her
behalf Therefore Prays &c.
London the 25th. May
[Similar material is repeated in another PRO document (AO 12/71 [CWFL microfilm M-527] checked for this report but not transcribed here.]
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/14/88.
I've checked several sources and, with my colleagues here in the department, conclude that this surname was pronounced BA-rawd—"a" as in "bat," slight emphasis on the first syllable, second syllable rhyming with "laud," and the final "d" sounded.
Let me summarize briefly how I arrived at this. In the Virginia Gazettes printed in Williamsburg the name is consistently spelled as we spell it today, so no phonetic help came from that quarter. Documents printed in the periodicals indexed by Dr. Swem's Virginia Historical Index nearly always read "Barraud" (35 out of 40 times). The only two variants are "Barrawd," which shows up only once, and "Barrand," appearing 5 times. The latter could easily have resulted, I think, from a slip of the pen or not distinguishing between an "n" and a "u." But, of course, transcriptions of documents are not as good evidence as the original documents, so next I checked the manuscript ledger books of Humphrey Harwood. (His writing is especially appropriate for this purpose because he wrote clearly but spelled phonetically. For example, he rendered Michael as "Mical.") The three times he wrote Barraud, it is spelled just that way except once (on folio 25) when it may end in "and"; he corrected the heading of folio 58 to read "Barraud" instead of whatever mistake he made first.
The case is cinched, it seems to me, by St. George Tucker's poem in which he rhymes "Barraud" with "abroad." His rhymes are precise. When he needs "Chelsea" on line 2 to go with "say," he spells it accordingly—"Chelsa." On line 46 "unfeigned" must have the "-ed" accented to sound like "shad" and "had." Otherwise the rhymes here are pure.
Corroboration comes from a twentieth-century carrier of the name. In the introduction to her published genealogy, E. M. Barraud says the second syllable rhymes with "laud" and the first syllable is accented.
7 January 1988
|Doctr. Philip Barraud||Dr.||Cr.|
|1789||To Amt. Brought from Ledger A. folio 26842||£7. 2. 3-¾|
|Septembr. 11.||To putting a handle in a flat Iron||-. 1. 3|
|14.||To two linchpins for a Chair 1/3 Shoeing a horse Round 6/||-. 7. 3|
|29||To Repairing two hooks for hinges & Four new Rivets||-. 1.10½|
|30||To a large Spike Nail||-. -. 4|
|October 18||To a Bottom Iron for a hamer &c.||-. 1.10½|
|November 24||To Mending the top of a Tea Kitchen||-. 1. 3|
|26||To Riveting two hoops||-. -. 9|
|December 24||To a Top bar for a grate||-. 5. -|
|30||To Shoeing a horse Round 6/. Capinga pair 3/.||-. 9. -|
|January 1||To Shoeing a horse 3/ two Removes 1/6||-. 4. 6|
|8||To putting a hoop on a Tubb||-. -. 7½|
|23||To mending a hamer||-. -. 7½|
|March 5||To Mending a pair of tuggs for hamer||-. 1. 1½|
|To four lenths of Chain & a Staple||-. 1.10½|
|April 3||To two Removes 1/6 triming hind feet 7½||-. 2. 1½|
|8||To Shoeing a horse 3/ two Removes 1/6||-. 4. 6|
|May 8||To Repairing four bolts & Nuts for a Chair||-. 3. 6|
|To a Nut for a bolt||-.-.7½|
|14||To Repairing an axletree for a Chair||-. 3. 9|
|To a Washer 8d. Nut for a Swingletree 7¼||-. 1. 3¼|
|21||To Repairing top of a Chair||-. 2. -|
|June 10||To Repairing two bolts 1/8 & Nut 7¼||-. 1.10¼|
|To Repairing to [sic] of a Chair||-. 2. 6|
|14||To a Curb and two hooks for a bridle||-. 1. 8|
|17||To two hooks for blinds||-. 1. 3|
|22||To Mending a key for a door lock 1/3||-. 1. 3|
|To two plates for window blinds||-. 2. 6|
|23||To an eye for a blind||-. -. 7½|
|July 23||Mending a Stay for the Top of a Chair||-. 1. -|
|27||To triming two horses||-. 1. 3|
|August 26||To new prongs for a flesh fork||-. 1. 3|
|31||To two Swivles for a bridle bit||-. 1. 3|
|December 15||To a pair of Skeen Irons for a Cart 5/. A Washer 1/.||-. 6. -|
|To a linchpin 9d. three Staples 1/10½||-. 6. -|
|Repairing a hook 7d.||-. 3. 2½|
|To Repairing four hooks and a Staple||-. 1. 3|
|July 16||To triming a horses foot||-. -. 7½|
|26||To a pr. of cart wheels hoop'd near the spokes pr. Agreement||3. -. -|
|October 3||To a truss for the left side of a boy||-. 7. 6|
|April 16||To mending sugar chest||-. -. 9|
|23||To repairing a Jack||-. 2. 6|
|Augst. 8||To putting a Key to a lock||-. 2. 6|
|To mending a bridle bit 4/6 a hook for curb 6d.||-. 5. -|
|To 8 hooks & 16 Staples||-. 6. -|
|£ 15. 7. 6¼|
Transcribed and proofread
by Lou Powers, 7/19/88
In the name of God, Amen; I Philip Barraud of the City of Williamsburg Physician, being in perfect health & Memory do make my last will & testament, as follows.
Imprimis. I desire that all my just debts be paid.
Item. I give devise & bequeath to my beloved wife Anne Barraud all my Estate real & personal whereof I may died possessed, to have & to hold & to enjoy the same during the term of her natural life; and after her decease I give the same to be equally divided between [sic] all my children or their legal representative or representatives.
Item. I desire that my Estate be not appraised, & that my Executors be not compelled to give Security for their Administration. I hereby authorise my Executors in their discrestion to sell and dispose of all or any part of my Estate, personal or real, in fee simple, or otherwise for the Benefit of my said wife & Children; and I constitute my beloved Wife to be Guardian to all my children.
Item. I declare the provisions in this my will to be intended to extend to all children that I may hereafter have.
Lastly, I constitute my beloved wife Executrix of this my Will, and my much valued Friends & Brothers, Cary Haslet Hansford, & Robert Taylor, & my Friend St. George Tucker to be Executors thereof, hereby revoking and annulling all former Dispositions by me made by Testament or will. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & seal this third day of August one thousand seven hundred & ninety seven.
Signed sealed & acknowledged
by the within named Doctor
Philip Barraud, as and for his last will and Testament,
in the presence of us who have hereunto set our hands as Witnesses
in his presence, & in the presence of each other.
St. G. Tucker
Henry St. Geo: Tucker
Transcribed and proofread by
Lou Powers, 7/18/88
[Richard T.] Booker, constable of Williamsburg.
Statements, receipts, and other papers, 1818-1843.
|Mr. Richard Coke Dr. to R. T. Booker|
|August 29th 1826||to 360 feet of plank||7.20|
|to geting out & puting up 8 panels of pails to front yeard at 50||04.00|
|to making gait for front yard||3.00|
|to puting up 14 panels of rails in back yard & furnishing of post at 62½ Cts. per panell||08.45|
|to making latches & hanging gait||.50|
|Sept 29th||to pieceing flour [sic] & putting beed to window||09.00|
|to glasing 6 pains of glass at 6¼ Cts||00.38|
|to making one coffin||2.50|
|to 12 feet of T plank 24 to puting sides and end to bedstead||2.00|
|to puting in 3 pains of glass||.19|
|Drawn off by R. T. Booker||$ 29.47|
|Mr. Richard Coke Dr. to Richard T. Booker—|
|January 1st. 1828||to hire of waggion & horses one day||$ 2.00|
|May 2nd. 1828||to 590 feet of plank at 2 Cts per foot||11.80|
|to 14 posts at 25 Cts each||3.25|
|to puting up summer house & 3 frames||28.00|
|to puting 14 panels of pails in yard at 50 each||7.00|
|to 46 poles at 12½ Cts each||5.75|
|to 56 feet of sill at 12½ per foot||7.00|
|to 100 feet of 3 by 4 Scantling at 3 Cts||3.00|
|to 3000 shingles at $3.50 per 1000 [sic]||10.50|
|to 150 feet of 1¼ T plank for floor in Corn house||4.50|
|to 250 feet of sheeting & weather boarding @ 2 Ct||5.00|
|to building Corn house for you||20.00|
|to 4 slabs at 17 Cts each||.68|
|July 12th.||to going to your house after Charles [?]||1.00|
|August 29th 1828||to making Coffin for Filiss's child||2.50|
|Sept. 4th||to making a coffin for old Fillis||$5.00|
|Oct 27th. 1828||to arresting 5 negroes||2.00|
|to puting and taking out 5 negroes||5.00|
|to 1 days support of 5 negroes||7.25|
caryed over 3 leaves — R Cokes|
[page 337] amount brought over
(Transcribed by Mary A. Stephenson, 1947; original not checked in 1988.)
Ann Blaws Barraud
Williamsburg Wife, Mother and Musician
Notes on her husband Philip
Medical Doctor and Visiting Physician to the Mental Hospital
A Preliminary Report
James S. Darling
Musical Consultant to the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Organist-Choirmaster, Bruton Parish Church
|Appendix 1 — Sources|
|Appendix 2 — The Portraits|
|Appendix 3 — Items for the 1984 Antiques Forum Exhibit|
|Appendix 4 — Program of Music to be Played at the Forum Concert|
|Appendix 5 — Possibilities for Music in the Barraud House today|
When I discovered music owned and played by Ann Barraud in the Special Collections of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary, I did not anticipate the historical trail on which I was embarking. My initial reaction was pleasure in finding specific compositions known in Williamsburg in the eighteenth century. Then I realized I was examining the oldest keyboard music that has physically survived here to date. No one can tell the whereabouts of pieces played by musicians like Cuthbert Ogle or Peter Pelham. Only the Bolling Family Music Book containing popular airs for violin or flute but lacking harmonizations takes prior place.
A desire to learn about the original owner led to the genealogical study Barraud the story of a family by E. M. Barraud. Descendants with whom I have communicated distrust the book apparently due to the author's personal eccentricities. To date I find it historically sound and extremely useful. In particular it includes reproductions of family portraits unknown here. I am delighted that Mrs. Howze Haskell of Richmond will loan her never before exhibited portrait of Ann Barraud by James Peale. Her copy of the family coat of arms will also be available. We have permission to photograph these objects for our files. Mrs. Haskell plans to attend the last day of the 1984 Antiques Forum and the evening concert. I have written invitations from the owners of other portraits to see their pictures in Charlottesville and Baltimore.II
The report is necessarily preliminary, having been written during the Christmas season when I am performing every day. I have indicated a number of directions for further research in the article. The writing itself often needs revision. However with the Antiques Forum approaching there is an immediate need for an account however incomplete of the Barraud family. Both husband and wife through Philip's engaging letters to St. George Tucker emerge as vivacious charming people. The music proves that artistic activity continued in Williamsburg after the capital moved to Richmond. The current reconstruction of the Mental Hospital and the discussion of the future of the Barraud House gives immediate application to Foundation activities today.
I am indebted to Graham Hood and many Colonial Williamsburg staff members for their assistance. In addition Margaret Cook of Swem Library and Daniel Hawks of Jamestown Festival Park gave many practical suggestions.
J. S. DarlingJanuary 2, 1984
Examination of three bound volumes of music that belonged to Ann Blaws Barraud (1760—1836 ) casts new light on domestic music-making in Williamsburg at the end of the eighteenth century. The daughter of Dr. Lewis Hansford, a Norfolk physician, she married Philip Barraud (1758—1830 ), a prominent Williamsburg medical doctor, on July 22, 1783. Throughout her life the duties of wife, mother and companion would be her prime concerns, the same as for any other gentlewoman of the age. However, her surviving music by leading composers popular in London: Haydn, Handel, Schroeter, Shield, Jackson of Exeter and others indicates a considerable knowledge of the best compositions available and the technical skill to perform them. No doubt keyboard playing afforded her many happy hours in contrast to the cares of daily life.
The Barraud home, a one-and-a-half story A-roof frame dwelling at the corner of Francis and Botetourt Streets is easily recognized by its original distinctive porch railing of Chinese influence. Restored in 1942, the house contains many features from the eighteenth century: doors, mantles, floors but not the hall stairs. A comfortable, unpretentious structure, it would be home for Ann for over fifteen years from her marriage until the return to Norfolk in 1799. Dr. Barraud's name appears in Humphrey Harwood's ledger beginning in 1783 and he and his son continued to do small jobs at the house over the years. Harwood may be regarded as Williamsburg's chief bricklayer and builder after the Revolution.2
Dr. Philip was the son of Daniel Barraud, a Norfolk merchant who had emigrated from England as a young man. The partnership Balfour and Barraud advertised in the Virginia Gazette and engaged in a widely diverse business of selling everything from Irish linen to iron pots, "a neat chariot and harness" and portraits. They shipped tobacco to England, acted as agents for plantation rentals, and offered rewards for runaway slaves. Daniel fell on hard times with the disruption of trade during the war years. Heavily in debt, he located in Smithfield in 1778. He married Catherine Curle of Elizabeth City County on December 14, 1752. Philip was the third of six children. Portraits of both Daniel and Catherine by John Durand exist in the family today.
Nothing is known of Philip's boyhood but we may assume as good an education as could be found in Norfolk. These were prosperous years for his father and Philip benefited from them. The widespread report that Philip studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh appears unfounded. Years later he remembers that he served "faithfully three years in the Hospitals under McLurg in the War." (Letter of August 25, 1801) With less than two years until his marriage, he probably settled in Williamsburg soon after the cessation of hostilities and established his medical practice. One wonders how much formal medical training he may have received, but his ability, skill and compassion are never in question. St. George Tucker, Williamsburg judge, chief citizen and a close personal friend, writes a glowing and effusive recommendation to Thomas Jefferson on September 5, 1801. At that time Barraud was in danger of losing his position as head of the U. S. Marine Hospital in Norfolk. 3
I hesitate not to address this Letter to you in behalf of a Gentleman, whom an intimacy of twelve years has enabled me to judge of in the various Characters of a Man, a Physician and a Friend. And whom I assure you that during that period, I have never known a man of more genuine moral virtue; more unbounded liberality, and feeling for the miseries & distresses of his fellow men; or more extensive Charity, benevolence, tenderness, and attention to their sufferings; or so punctual to the duties of his profession, I beg leave to add that I shall have drawn but a faint Sketch of the virtues of my Friend.Tucker continues at length in the same vein and concludes, "he never on any occasion betrayed a sentiment which his adversaries would not have respected as that of an honest, candid and moderate man." Since Barraud had moved to Norfolk only two years previously, Tucker's estimate of his friend was formed largely on his Williamsburg activities. Besides his practice Barraud served four years as visiting physician at the mental hospital. For one year he was appointed to its Board of Directors. He enjoyed the friendship of Bishop Madison and was a member of the Board of Visitors of the College of William and Mary.
Philip's medical opportunities were not as large as he wished. The town was beginning its decline with the removal of the capital to Richmond. No doubt his growing family increased financial demands. Surviving letters attest the lack of patients:
I am now on Foot again, in all the Leisure of a Gentleman-Doctor with not Business enough to make the Pott boil, or to give Feed to my Horse — our whole country enjoys unparalled Health. (Letter of August 1796)However, his undoubted success as a medical man indicates this comment need not be overstated. 4
Barraud's letters to Tucker, who travelled throughout Virginia in judicial matters, reflect family medical problems common to all. Ann would have six children in Williamsburg and three more in Norfolk, of whom five would die in childhood. In the letter above he writes, "My dear wife is getting abroad after a painful & tedious confinement, incident to her late Travail. She thanks you for your Solicitude for her Health." Later he says, "My poor Dear wife has had incessant attacks of ague and little dirty Fevers that knaw away her Flesh, yet give her no great Distress. She is now in Bed close to my Elbow & commands me to send a full charge of Love to you all." (Letter of October 12, 1796) A year and a half later he records, "our Children are fairly passing through the perils of the small pox — Nan with five pistules. Harry several hundred. No fever & in good health." (Letter of May 19, 1798). He himself had a recurring summer complaint, possibly malaria or an allergy. "In seven years have I never been treated with more Tenderness by this virulent enemy." (Letter of August 1796).
Increased professional opportunities and the post of head of the marine hospital would induce him to move his family to Norfolk in 1799 but not without misgivings, "the whole place is filled with small pox." Virulent outbreaks of small pox and yellow fever ravaged Norfolk almost every year. Time would show that old residents tended to develop resistance and near immunity but newcomers sickened and died. Philip would be assured of many patients for his livelihood.
Besides medical concerns Philip's letters reveal him as a jovial, sociable delightful man with a particular interest in good food. Phrases like these abound: "The good & wholesome Fare of Virginia Road-Taverns"; "the Ice Creams and Butter-cakes" eaten while travelling; "Molly fattens on buttermilk like a pig."
All portraits except #2 are reproduced in Barraud by E. M. Barraud (pp. 33, 48-49). These book illustrations are useful but need to be updated.
Music from the Collection of Ann Blaws Barraud
who lived in Williamsburg in the 1780s and 1790s
|Sonata 49 in C Sharp Major||
Franz Joseph Hayden|
|Scherzando—Allegro con brio|
William Jackson of Exeter|
|My Days have been so Wondrous Free|
|My Banks are Furnished with Bees|
|Waft me some Soft and Cooling Breeze|
|Night to Lovers Joys a Friend|
|Mrs. Wilson with instruments|
|Concerto in B Flat Major, Opus IV, No. 2||
George Frideric Handel|
|A tempo ordinario e staccato|
|Adagio e staccato|
|Allegro ma non troppo|
|Mr. Darling with instruments|
|Three Airs from Rosina||
|Sweet Transports, Gentle Winds|
|Henry Culled the Flowerets Bloom|
|Light as Thistledown|
|Mrs. Wilson with fortepiano and violin|
|Concerto in E Flat Major, Opus III, No. 6||
Johann Samuel Schroeter|
|Mr. Darling with instruments|
Fortepiano by Peter Redstone 1983, made for the Governor's Palace. A copy of the earliest surviving English grand piano by Americus Backers 1772.
At this time when the future use of the Barraud House is under discussion, the rediscovery of Ann Barraud's music becomes especially important. This authenticates that domestic music making took place here. As yet we do not know whether the Barrauds owned a fortepiano or a harpsichord. It is possible they possessed both. The piano could have been a square or a grand. Either a spinet or full size harpsichord would be appropriate. With luck further research among Barraud family members might provide us a clue as to their musical instruments.
Currently in the restored area there is no place where a seated group can sit in domestic surroundings and listen to music, the most common way they did this in the eighteenth century. It takes time to experience a whole sonata, a group of songs or other substantial musical work. Yet we are assured that Ann Barraud played Haydn sonatas here since her music survives. I can envision a half hour musicale with commentary in the Barraud house that would be appreciated by our visitors. From my years of playing in Wren Chapel such an experience is satisfying to both listener and player. An opportunity would be available for conversation between audience and musician. What about tea and biscuits after the music? Best of all it could be done at minimal expense. C. W. Musicians could play on company time. Chairs could be permanently available and easy to set up. The size of the audience would be small, but this makes presentation easier. I hope that when the future of the house is considered that the musical potential will be thoroughly examined and I will be delighted to give any help I can.